Category Archives: Garden Design

Down on the Farm: Signs of Spring

We Made It!

Spring is slow to arrive in northwest Connecticut but, while we’re not venturing out into the gardens just yet, it’s evident that winter’s grip is easing. The sun is higher in the sky, the greenhouses are smelling sweet and fresh, and it won’t be long before we begin shipping to warmer corners of the country. As per our custom at this time of year, we’re pleased to deliver a brief-ish update from the nursery.

A New Rose Garden, Year 2

Late last season, we planted a variety of Roses and companion plants in our new Rose Garden. As spring and summer arrive, we’re excited to see how the whole garden develops.

Last summer we began installing a sizable new rose garden at the nursery, with design guidance from Julie Messervy and her team at Julie Moir Messervy Design Studio in Saxons River, VT. The garden will, as it matures, feature not only several dozen varieties of Roses, including both heirlooms and favorite modern cultivars, but our favorite Rose “companions” – Nepeta, Lavender, Clematis, Salvia, and many others.

This summer the garden will still be in its infancy, but over the years it will deliver us a tremendous re-education on gardening with Roses, and we’re eager for the school bell to ring. We trust visitors to the nursery also will enjoy watching this garden come into its own and perhaps take some fresh inspiration home with them.

Dates To Save

Join us for our 14th annual Great Tomato Celebration. This year, it will be held on two days, Friday and Saturday, May 17 and 18.

As usual, we have a number of fun events lined up at the nursery this spring. You can find details about all of them on our website. We’d like to alert would-be travelers that our Great Tomato Celebration, an annual offering of dozens of varieties of tomato seedlings and other kitchen garden supplies, is scheduled for Friday, May 17, and Saturday, May 18. (Please note there are no Sunday hours this year.) We’re excited to welcome back noted Tomato expert Craig LeHoullier, author of Epic Tomatoes: How to Select and Grow the Best Varieties of All Time. Craig will be on hand for lectures and Q&A availability on both days. Cross your fingers for decent weather, but the show goes on rain or shine.

An Update to Our Sales Tax Policy

Gardening is typically an escape for daily trials and tribulations. But when changes to tax law impact the way we do business with you, we find ourselves obliged to draw your attention to matters mathematical, at least for a moment.

As you may or may not have noticed, White Flower Farm has historically collected sales tax only on items shipping to Connecticut addresses. This is consistent with long-standing precedent that online retailers are responsible for collecting sales tax only on transactions to states where the seller has a physical presence, such as a store or a warehouse. White Flower Farm has a physical presence only in Connecticut; therefore, we have, until now, collected sales tax only on Connecticut-bound merchandise.

But last summer this precedent was changed by the Supreme Court’s ruling in South Dakota v. Wayfair. The court decided that the “physical presence rule” was outdated, and that states may charge tax on purchases made with out-of-state sellers, regardless of whether or not the seller has a physical presence in the state.

Since this ruling, many states have implemented new sales tax policies for out-of-state sellers, and White Flower Farm will shortly begin collecting sales tax on sales to many states beyond Connecticut. Our aim is to comply with all applicable laws and also to do our best to minimize confusion for our customers. With the latter objective in mind, here are a few further details:

• Different states have different sales tax rates; they also have different rules regarding whether shipping & handling charges are taxable, and what kinds of products are taxable at all. For example, in Connecticut, a tomato plant is not considered a food item, and therefore is taxable. Other states may handle that sort of item differently.
• If an item is purchased by a buyer in one state to be shipped to a different state (as many gift items are), the applicable tax rate is the one set by the state to which the item is being shipped, not the one in which the buyer resides.
• WhiteFlowerFarm.com displays sales tax as a single dollar figure in your order summary. If your order includes shipping addresses in multiple states, any applicable sales taxes will be combined into the single tax figure you see at checkout. The same calculations are applied to orders placed over the phone.

Thanks for your attention to this quite literally taxing topic. We welcome any questions you may have.

New Favorites for Spring

With more and more gardeners looking for ways to reduce their lawn space and support garden pollinators and other beneficial insects and wildlife, we’re thrilled to introduce our new preplanned Native Meadow Garden. This exclusive collection of carefully selected North American natives features low-maintenance perennials that provide food and habitat for birds, butterflies, and beneficial insects while offering colorful blossoms and foliage for human admirers.

New Native Meadow Garden

We trialed this garden extensively at our farm in Connecticut where it has become a magnet for Monarchs and other winged creatures whose visits add to its natural, wild beauty. If you have a fence or property line in full sun, or a sunny swath of lawn you’re willing to cede to blossoms and wildlife, we urge you to try it. Give the plants a season to settle in, then watch them take off the following year.

New Pink Mandevilla

Also new this year is our collection of tropical plants for the patio. From nonstop flowering Mandevillas to glorious, large-flowering Hibiscus, to harder-to-find favorites including Alpinia ‘Variegata’ and Macho Fern, we have everything you need to turn your backyard patio into a tropical paradise. Our head gardener, Cheryl Whalen, put her talents to work last season, and she used a variety of tropical foliage plants to create two exceptional new collections, Bonito and Spicy Salsa.

Our new Bonito Annual Collection combines plants with fabulous foliage for a distinctly exotic look.
Create a spectacular display in your late summer sunny border with this trio of Dahlias from the Café au Lait series.

Dahlia lovers will not want to miss our new Café au Lait Trio, which features longtime favorite Dahlia ‘Café au Lait’ with two of its siblings, Dahlia ‘Café au Lait Rose’ and Dahlia ‘Café au Lait Royal.’ The color blend, which ranges from mocha pink to fuchsia, is as harmonious as can be, and each plant produces the large, 10” dinnerplate blossoms that made the original such a favorite. Beautiful in the garden and superb for larger-scale bouquets.

We hope you’re as excited as we are to see the first signs of spring. It’ll be great to get out into the garden.

What Is a Hardiness Zone, and Why Is It Important?

If you’ve spent any time shopping for plants, you’ve likely encountered the term “hardiness zone.” Simply put, hardiness zones are numerical and alphabetical codes that are assigned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to each area of the country. Our hardiness zone at the farm is 5b. Other areas of Connecticut may have slightly different zones, ranging up to 7a depending on regional geographic and climactic factors. Why is it important for gardeners to know their hardiness zones? Knowing your zone is the key to choosing plants that can survive and thrive in your particular area. Choosing plants that are not hardy in your zone can lead to frustration, disappointment and unnecessary expense.

To help demystify ‘hardiness zones,’ and to help you understand how to choose plants that are hardy for your garden, read below.

What Is a Hardiness Zone?

Using historical temperature data, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) divided the country into 13 hardiness zones, ranging from 1 (coldest) to 13 (warmest). Each of these zones is further divided into “A” and “B” for greater accuracy, with A being colder than B. Click here to see the USDA’s hardiness zone map. These zones are defined by average annual minimum temperatures. For example, a zip code in which the average annual minimum temperature is between -15 and -10 Fahrenheit is assigned to hardiness zone 5B.

The idea behind the map is that a gardener may look up his or her hardiness zone and use it to identify plants that will thrive in their area. For example, a gardener in our region of Northwest Connecticut (hardiness zone 5b) may confidently plant a variety that has been rated hardy to zone 4 but would generally not plant a variety that is rated hardy only to zone 6, because the zone 6 plant is not likely to survive the typical winter in that area.

How To Find & Use Your Hardiness Zone on WhiteFlowerFarm.com

It’s easy to find your zone on our website, www.WhiteFlowerFarm.com, and our site is set up to help you shop with your zone in mind. First, at the top of our home page, just under the Search box, click on Find Your Hardiness Zone and enter your zip code in the box that appears, then click Look Up. When the page reappears, your zone number will be listed at the top of the page in the spot previously occupied by Find Your Hardiness Zone. As you shop for individual plants and collections, the site will keep track of your zone, so that just beneath each product name, the words “Within My Zone” will appear alongside a small green flag if the plant you’ve chosen is, indeed, hardy in your area. If a plant is not hardy in your area, a small red flag with the words “Outside My Zone” will display.

As you navigate our site, you may also use the filters on the left side of the page to narrow down a listing to display only plants that will thrive in your zone.

Some experienced gardeners may “push the zone” by taking a chance on a plant that is not hardy in their area. Some plants can, in fact, be pushed, but they may require coddling and special care to see them through winter. Please be aware that we cannot honor our usual guarantee on plants if they have been shipped and planted outside of their suggested hardiness range.

Sometimes Hardiness Ratings Include “S” or “W” – What Does This Mean?

When listing the hardiness range of a plant, we often “split” the warm end of the range—for example, you might see a plant listed as Hardiness Zone: 3-8S/10W. In this instance, the 3 refers to the “cold hardiness” of the plant—all else equal, this variety should overwinter successfully in zone 3. The 8S refers to the humid Southeast (the ‘S’ being for ‘South’) and the 10W (‘W’ for ‘West’) to the comparatively dry Pacific Coast states of CA, OR, and WA—this plant can tolerate zone 8 temperatures in the South, and zone 10 temperatures on the West coast. In Northern climates, summer heat is not typically a consideration.

So to summarize—a plant listed as 3-8S/10W should successfully overwinter in zones 3 or warmer, tolerate humid heat up to zone 8, and tolerate dry heat up to zone 10.

We realize this is a bit complicated, but the problem is that the USDA zones are not always sufficiently specific. For example, our nursery in Connecticut is in the same hardiness zone as Taos, New Mexico, a climate that could hardly be more different than ours. Furthermore, there are innumerable other variables that may determine how a plant fares in a given site. We find that customers, over time, gain a good understanding of which plants do and don’t work for them, and this understanding is much more helpful than a strict reliance on hardiness zones. When in doubt, please contact us—our customer service team is extremely knowledgeable and ready to assist. You’ll find them at [email protected] or by calling 1-800-503-9624.

Fragrant Shrubs Perfume Your Garden From Spring to Fall

Spring’s first scent of Lilac. The unmistakable sweet spicy vanilla fragrance of Viburnum carlesii. The sultry summer perfume of Roses. Fragrant shrubs can fill your garden with heavenly perfume from spring to fall. Choose a variety of shrubs to add fragrance to your garden (and to fill vases in your house) throughout the growing season. Among our favorites, early spring brings the sweet perfumes of Azalea ‘Northern Hi-Lights,’ Lilac Bloomerang® ‘Pink Perfume,’ and the native Lindera benzoin. Late spring offers the spicy scent of Daphne Eternal Fragrance™ and the sweet citrus fragrance of Philadelphus (Mock Orange). Roses and Clethra can be relied upon to perfume the garden in summer with some of the Rose varieties continuing into fall. Scroll below to learn more about these fragrant plants, and find more here.

Syringa Bloomerang® Pink Perfume

If you’ve always wanted the intoxicating scent of Lilacs in your garden, but didn’t have room for them, take a close look at this lovely addition to the Bloomerang® family of reblooming Lilacs. Its upright, bushy form reaches just 4–5′ tall, and its dainty spikes of reddish purple buds open to intensely fragrant, soft pink flowers. ‘Pink Perfume’ blooms heavily in May and, after a short rest, flowers again intermittently until fall. These charming plants give a neat show of color for containers, pathways, and intimate spaces.

Viburnum carlesii

This is one of the most gloriously fragrant shrubs known to man. The dense flower heads, which measure up to 3″ across, produce white flowers from blush pink buds, and the perfume, which is a sweet, rich, spicy vanilla, carries a considerable distance across a lawn or garden. Plant one or two where you take your springtime strolls.

Rose Sweet Spirit

A profusion of vibrant, violet-red blossoms, 3-5 per stem, appears nonstop on this vigorous Hybrid Tea. The fully double 3” flowers are richly perfumed, and they are handsomely displayed as they gleam in the sunlight against a backdrop of subtly glossy, dark green foliage. These bushy, mounding plants show increased resistance to black spot and improved tolerance of humidity. A staff favorite at the nursery.

Azalea ‘Northern Hi-Lights’

This deciduous Azalea is a welcome addition to the garden for those of us who must suffer through brutally cold winters. Released by the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum in 1994, ‘Northern Hi-Lights’ is hardy to Zone 4. Its sweetly fragrant flowers emerge white with splashes of yellow on the upper petals. Mildew-resistant foliage on this strong grower turns a striking burgundy red in the fall, before dropping for the season.

When Lindera benzoin displays its dense clusters of fragrant flowers, we know for certain spring has arrived. These lovely yellow blossoms appear before the leaves emerge. In summer, the light green foliage makes an attractive backdrop, and in autumn the leaves turn bright golden yellow. Lindera benzoin is native to eastern North America and parts of the Midwest, and it makes a handsome addition to woodland gardens and moist areas near ponds or streams. More reasons to love this shrub: The beautiful Spicebush swallowtail butterflies rely on it as a food source for their caterpillars, and deer tend to avoid it.

A Tribute to David Austin & His Exquisite English Roses

Late last year, on Dec. 18th, David C. H. Austin, Sr., the legendary English rosarian and founder of David Austin® Roses Ltd., passed away at the age of 92. According to representatives, he died peacefully at his home in Shropshire surrounded by his family, an end befitting a man who brought so much beauty and wonder to the lives of others.

Rose hybridizer and writer David C. H. Austin founded David Austin Roses in 1969 in Shropshire, England. The Austin nursery, display gardens and plant center in the village of Albrighton draw visitors from around the globe.

Born in 1926 and raised on a family farm in the Shropshire countryside, Austin’s interest in flowers blossomed early. As the story goes, he was just a schoolboy when he found in the school library an issue of the great garden magazine Gardens Illustrated. What he saw on the pages ignited a passion that would last a lifetime. Austin’s father, a farmer, did not initially approve of his son’s interest in breeding flowers, but when the younger Austin turned 21, his sister gifted him with a copy of A.E. Bunyard’s book, Old Garden Roses. The rest, as they say, is history. Austin devoted his adult life to breeding what eventually became known as “English Roses.” His groundbreaking varieties combine the beauty and fragrance of classic varieties with the diversity of color and repeat-flowering habit of newer Roses. Austin eventually achieved worldwide success, but it did not come overnight. Austin’s first rose, introduced in 1961, was ‘Constance Spry.’ Industry professionals told him buyers would never be interested in what they called his “old-fashioned roses,” but Austin persisted, initially selling stock from his own kitchen table. By 1969, he had developed and was offering repeat-bloomers. But his real breakthrough came in 1983, when he introduced three of his English Roses at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show. Back at Chelsea the following year, Austin won the first of many gold medals. With a subsequent increase in sales, Austin was able to upgrade and expand his business and also his garden at Albrighton, which today is widely regarded as one of the most beautiful Rose gardens in the world.

The Austin gardens in Albrighton, England. The photo was taken in 2018 by White Flower Farm’s Eliot Wadsworth.

To best understand the patience, perseverance and wonder of what Austin accomplished in his lifetime, it helps to know that from pollination to sale, the process of creating a new Rose takes nine years. For each new Rose released, roughly 120,000 unique Roses are grown for research.

Rose Olivia Rose Austin™: Any Rose named for a member of David Austin’s family must be exceptional, and this lovely Shrub Rose is certainly that. Cupped, double blossoms of blush pink expand into old-fashioned rosettes that pale to pearly pink at their edges. They carry a rich perfume with sweet fruity notes.

Austin has 240 Rose varieties to his name. Although he was awarded countless honors during his lifetime, he has been quoted as saying that his greatest satisfaction was “to see the pleasure my roses give to gardeners and rose lovers around the world.”

Rose Claire Austin™: This intensely fragrant, double-flowering beauty is named for David Austin’s daughter. The shrub and its flowers are an elegant presence in any garden. Plants have an arching form that makes them well suited for use as small climbers.

At White Flower Farm, we are honored and privileged to have worked with David Austin’s company over many years. We are delighted that David Austin® Roses Ltd. and its remarkable breeding program will continue under the guidance of Austin’s eldest son, David J.C. Austin, who has been with the company since 1990 and who assumed the role of managing director in 1993, and David Austin’s grandson, Richard Austin. We look forward to doing our part to perpetuate David Austin’s remarkable legacy and to encourage the enjoyment of his exceptional Roses.

New for Spring

Each year, our staff spends a significant amount of time searching out and sourcing new plants. The process can involve world travel, internet searches, phone calls, and visits to breeder’s and grower’s fields. It also involves growing new plants in our greenhouses and garden beds and experimenting with ways we can best offer new and old favorites. The results of our journeys and discoveries for spring, which also include a number of exceptional garden accents and tools, can be seen below and on our website.

Cafe au Lait Trio

Create a spectacular display in your late summer sunny border with this trio of Dahlias from the Café au Lait series. Each plant produces large, 10″ blossoms that arrive in profusion atop tall, sturdy stems. The color mix shades from the mocha pink of the original ‘Café au Lait’ to the lavender-pink of ‘Café au Lait Rosé’ and the unabashed fuchsia of ‘Café au Lait Royal.’

Clematis ‘Taiga’

For beautiful colors, extravagance of blooms, and graceful habit, nothing compares with Clematis, the queen of the flowering vines. Attracting attention at the 2017 Chelsea Flower Show, Clematis ‘Taiga’ combines a compact growth habit with abundant double blossoms bristling with bicolor petals. Bred in Japan, the blooms feature a central nest of purple petals tipped in cream against an outer star of rich purple.

Tomato ‘Madame Marmande’

From France comes Tomato ‘Madame Marmande,’ a gourmet beefsteak with fruits that tip the scales at 10 oz of delicious flavor. The handsome, ribbed, broad-shouldered fruits do not crack while ripening. Indeterminate. Fruits ripen about 72 days from transplant.

Sculptural Garden Stakes

Add a bit of botanically inspired sculpture to your garden with charming decorative accents that can be displayed in any season. British master craftsman and sculptor Paul Cox creates these ornamental stakes in his Sussex studio. The metal stem on each arrives gray in color before gradually and naturally oxidizing to become a rust orange color that blends beautifully with the plants in your garden.

Hydrangea Endless Summer® Summer Crush™

Hydrangea Endless Summer® Summer Crush™ is a vibrant Mophead that delivers a color breakthrough of riveting raspberry to purple flowers (depending on your soil) that pop from a distance. Plus, the plump blooms are densely held on a compact, conveniently container-sized shrub. Great planted in multiples along a walkway or a stone wall, too.

Growing Roses Is Easier Than Ever

Today’s Roses are not your grandmother’s finicky, high maintenance plants. Thanks to the efforts of talented and patient breeders, many of today’s Roses are vigorous plants that more readily shrug off pests and diseases and bring years of classic beauty, and often fragrance, to the garden. What this means for gardeners is that growing Roses is easier than ever. For novices or those who could use a refresher, our nursery manager Barb Pierson offers these simple tips:

Helpful Tips for Growing Roses

1. If you live in a colder climate, as we do here in Connecticut, try growing Roses close to the foundation of your home. This provides plants with some degree of winter protection. Walkways are also good spots provided there is full sun. This is generally defined as at least 6 hours per day of direct sunlight.

Rose Suñorita™

2. Remember that light changes as the angle of the sun shifts throughout the season. If you live in the upper half of the U.S., choose a site that will offer full sun year-round. The more sun you have, the more flowers your plants will produce. In the lower half of the U.S., choose spots with a little bit of afternoon shade. This protects blossoms from the scorching sun and helps your flowers last longer.

Rose Ebb Tide™

3. Roses love sandy soil. Amend your soil accordingly to provide the best footing for plants. Also choose sites with good drainage, which helps ensure that Roses overwinter more successfully. They do not like wet, cold feet.

4. Do not crowd your Roses. Plants that don’t have adequate air circulation and sunlight are more susceptible to powdery and downy mildew. Remove any spent foliage from the ground around your Roses. The leaves contain natural fungal spores that can transfer to your Roses.

Rose Olivia Rose Austin™

5. Artificial liquid fertilizers tend to promote plant growth that is soft and tender, and this type of foliage can attract aphids and other pests. Instead, rely on compost and natural fertilizers to feed your plants.

Rose Julia Child™

6. If problems develop, horticultural oil and insecticidal soap can help control insects and mildews.

Rose Pretty Polly™ Pink

7. When pruning, be judicious. If you prune too hard in autumn, plants can be damaged beyond recovery. Instead, wait until spring, when plants begin to leaf out for the new season. (Roses are often not the earliest plants in the garden to respond to spring’s warming temperatures, so be patient.) Give the plant time to show its leaf buds then prune above that level.

Front Door Decorating

Share the joy of the season with family, friends, and neighbors when you decorate your front door for the holidays. Using beautiful evergreen wreaths and garlands, you transform your front entrance into a beacon of holiday cheer. Annual planters also help create a festive look outside your home by making beautiful use of the decorations Mother Nature provides for the winter months. Take advantage of variously colored and textured evergreens, bright red winterberries, pine cones, seed pods, and colorful twigs. Scroll below for a bit of inspiration and to see some of the products we offer, and telegraph a little cheer around your neighborhood.

Holly and Greens Garland and Wreath

These handsome and traditional decorations hail from Oregon where members of a family-owned firm harvest holly from their own groves then combine it with the fresh-cut foliage of locally grown evergreens and Ponderosa pine cones. The sweet and tangy fragrance of these lush greens will fill a room with the classic, all-natural scent of Christmastime.

Huckleberry Crescent Ring

The rich, warm tones of Huckleberry add vibrant holiday color to this beautiful and inviting wreath. Arrayed on a gold-colored metal ring is a crescent of fresh Manzanita overlaid with red Huckleberry stems and finished with a burgundy satin bow.

Canella Berry Door Greeter

Welcome all who stop by your house with this eye-catching arrangement of holiday reds and greens. Freshly harvested, lush branches of fragrant Noble Fir, Incense Cedar, and berried Juniper are accented by clusters of red Canella berries and pine cones, then topped with a bright bow edged in gold.

Winter Containers

In the planting on the right, we feature live Chamaecyparis ‘Boulevard,’ paired with Dogwood stems and topped with frosted Pine Cones. The container on the left combines gold-rimmed Euonymus ‘Aureomarginatus’ and Chamaecyparis ‘Sungold’ complemented by berried Juniper stems. Both containers are brightened by Winterberry stems.

Touch of Gold Decorating Greens

For those who enjoy a DIY project, we offer boxes of freshly harvested greens that are ideal for filling outdoor containers and window boxes. Our Touch of Gold collections include gilded Nigella, Flax and Lotus pods to add sparkle to your decorations.

Growing Citrus Indoors

The benefits and delights of growing Citrus indoors are numerous. For starters, these small trees with glossy green leaves are lovely to look at. When in flower, the scent of their blossoms is pure heaven. Then, of course, there is fresh, homegrown fruit to enjoy. A few easy tips will help you succeed in maintaining a healthy and productive Citrus plant.

When you receive your plant, do not be alarmed if it begins to drop flowers, fruit, and/or foliage, as this is the plant’s reaction to being shipped. Citrus plants need at least 4–6 weeks to acclimate to a new location and this acclimation can take longer if the plant is receiving less than 6 hours of direct sun per day. During this time, DO NOT fertilize the plant, as this will cause further stress. Once the plant is acclimated—which means the plant is able to produce and maintain new growth—you can begin fertilizing according to our recommendations mentioned below.

The juice of Key Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) gives a sparkling tang to pies as well as Mediterranean, Mexican, and Asian recipes. (It will also spruce up any drink from ice-cold water to something stiffer.)

In most of the United States, these plants must be grown indoors, at least during the winter. Fortunately, their rootstock will keep them a manageable size (to no more than 4–5′ in a container), so they can summer on the patio and spend the winter in a greenhouse, an enclosed porch, or near a sunny, south-facing window. Move the plant outdoors in late spring if you’d like, but wait until the weather is warm and settled.

Gardeners in Zone 10 and warmer can grow Calamondin Orange and ‘Meyer Improved’ Lemon outdoors. ‘Meyer Improved’ Lemon is hardy in Zone 9 as well. Set the pot outdoors in a sheltered, lightly shaded spot, increasing the exposure to sun and wind each day. Check the moisture of the potting mix and water thoroughly if it’s dry. At the end of one week (give or take a day or two), your plant will be ready to go in the ground. Choose a spot for your plant that receives full sun (at least 6 hours of direct sun each day) and is protected from drying winds. Planted in the ground, our Citrus will grow approximately 10′ tall.

‘Meyer Improved’ is a hybrid between a Lemon and an Orange, which makes it a little sweeter than regular Lemons. It’s also a prolific bearer. You’ll enjoy the heavenly scent from luscious blooms followed by fruit in midwinter.

Since Citrus plants are heavy feeders, we include a nutrient spray and a slow-release fertilizer with all varieties. For the nutrient spray: Once your plant has acclimated to its new home (about 4-6 weeks from receipt of plant) and when it is warm enough to spray your plant outdoors in your area, add all of the product to 4 oz of water in a spray bottle (not included). Move the plant to a shady location and spray the leaves. Avoid spraying the blooms. Apply weekly until gone. For the slow-release fertilizer: Once your plant has acclimated to its new home (about 4-6 weeks from receipt), uniformly spread complete package contents on the soil at the base of your plant. Do not mix with water or apply to foliage.

Prune Citrus at any time of the year except winter. Pinch growing tips and cut back leggy branches to help a spindly tree fill out. Suckers (shoots growing from below the graft or emerging from the soil) should be cut back as soon as they’re noticed.

To learn more, watch our short video “How to Grow Citrus Plants” below.

Learn About Hardiness Zones

If you’ve spent any time on our website, or read any of our catalogs, you’ve likely encountered the term “hardiness zone.” We’d like to de-mystify this term a bit, and explain how location should play into your selection of plants.

What Is a Hardiness Zone?

Using historical temperature data, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has divided the country into 13 hardiness zones, ranging from 1 (coldest) to 13 (warmest). Each of these zones is further divided into “A” and “B” for greater accuracy, with A being colder than B. Click here to see the USDA’s hardiness zone map. These zones are defined by average annual minimum temperatures. For example, a zip code in which the average annual minimum temperature is between -15 and -10 Fahrenheit is assigned to hardiness zone 5B.

The idea behind the map is that a gardener may look up his or her hardiness zone and use it to identify plants that will thrive in their area. For example, a gardener in Northwest Connecticut (hardiness zone 5) may confidently plant a variety that has been rated hardy to zone 4 but would generally not plant a variety that is rated hardy only to zone 6, because the zone 6 plant is not likely to survive the typical winter in that area.

How To Find & Use Your Hardiness Zone on WhiteFlowerFarm.com

First, go to www.whiteflowerfarm.com. At the top of our home page, just under the Search box, click on Find Your Hardiness Zone and enter your zip code in the box that appears, then click on Look Up. When the page reappears, your zone number will be listed at the top of the page (in the spot previously occupied by Find Your Hardiness Zone). As you navigate our site, use the filters on the left side of the page to narrow down a listing to display only plants that will thrive in your zone.

If you choose a plant or plants that are not considered hardy in your zone, our site will offer a gentle warning at checkout. This is not intended to dissuade you (in fact, plants can sometimes be “pushed” to grow outside their hardiness zones), but we wish to help you avoid any possible disappointment if a plant fails to perform well due to a climate mismatch. Please be aware that we cannot honor our usual guarantee on plants that have been shipped outside of their suggested hardiness range.

Sometimes Hardiness Ratings Include “S” or “W” – What Does This Mean?

When listing the hardiness range of a plant, we often “split” the warm end of the range—for example, you might see a plant listed as Hardiness Zone: 3-8S/10W. In this instance, the 3 refers to the “cold hardiness” of the plant—all else equal, this variety should overwinter successfully in zone 3. The 8S refers to the humid Southeast (the ‘S’ being for ‘South’) and the 10W (‘W’ for ‘West’) to the comparatively dry Pacific Coast states of CA, OR, and WA—this plant can tolerate zone 8 temperatures in the South, and zone 10 temperatures on the West coast. In Northern climates, summer heat is not typically a consideration.

So to summarize—a plant listed as 3-8S/10W should successfully overwinter in zones 3 or warmer, tolerate humid heat up to zone 8, and tolerate dry heat up to zone 10.

We realize this is complicated; the problem is that the USDA zones are really not sufficiently specific. For example, our nursery in Connecticut is in the same hardiness zone as Taos, NM—a climate that could hardly be more different than ours. Furthermore, there are innumerable other variables that may determine how a plant fares in a given site. We find that customers, over time, gain a good understanding of which plants do and don’t work for them, and that this understanding is much more helpful than a strict reliance on hardiness zone. When in doubt, please contact us—our customer service team is extremely knowledgeable and ready to assist.

Different Types of Amaryllis

We start the holiday season with over 70 Amaryllis varieties, including Singles, Doubles, Nymphs, Small-Flowered Varieties and Cybisters in a dazzling range of colors. Our Amaryllis bulbs are the top size commercially available (larger than what is generally seen at retail stores) and have been fully prepared at the proper temperature. Given warm temperatures, strong light, and water upon arrival, they will put on a spectacular show that will brighten up even the gloomiest winter day. Scroll below to see the wide range of varieties and colors available.

The 5″ double red blossoms of Amaryllis Fanfare® are very flared, very full, and very ruffled.

South African Amaryllis produce the same large, richly colored blooms as their Dutch cousins, but on an earlier timetable. Because bulbs grown in the Southern Hemisphere mature sooner in the year, we begin filling orders in October, and South African varieties will bloom about 6-8 weeks from receipt, often in time for the holidays.

Cybister Amaryllis produce delicate blooms that look more like wildflowers or dragonflies. These reliable growers will delight you with their colorful yet exotic flowers.

The blooms of Cybister Amaryllis (varieties of the South American species Hippeastrum cybister) look like exotic tropical birds but the bulbs are as floriferous and easy to grow as their bigger cousins. The dramatic Cybister Amaryllis naturally make smaller bulbs and flowers.

The vibrant coral flowers of ‘Sunshine Nymph’ are detailed with pink undertones and white stripes.

Nymphs are a distinctive, carefully-bred class of Amaryllis with exceptionally large and heavily petaled flowers on very strong stems. As the photos confirm, blooms are nearly as wide as the pots they grow in and each stem is guaranteed to produce four flowers, a rarity among doubles.

These red-and-white, lightly ruffled blooms of ‘Spotlight’ take center stage and light up even the darkest winter days with white lower petals that are etched with dark orange flecks and soft brushstrokes.

Amaryllis flowers come in a variety of colors, or even shades of colors. These types are known as bicolor Amaryllis. Bicolor means the Amaryllis flower has two colors on the same bloom.

As iconic as its Hollywood namesake, ‘Marilyn,’ this perfectly proportioned beauty turns heads with voluptuous double white flowers and faint green undertones.

Double Amaryllis are popular for good reason. Their shapely blooms and rich colors light up a cold day like nothing else we know.

These enormous, open-faced, solid pink blossoms of ‘Lagoon’ cast a spell of tranquil beauty.

Amaryllis flowers come in a variety of shapes and sizes, including single-flowered varieties. This means they have a single layer of petals that form the flower.

To learn more about Amaryllis, watch our short video below, ‘How to Pot and Care for Amarylls.’